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Sept. Russland darf in den Weltsport zurückkehren. Die Welt-Anti-Doping-Agentur WADA begnadigt die russische Agentur RUSADA. Diese muss. Sept. Allerdings muss Russland der Wada bis zum Juni den Zugang zum Moskauer Analyselabor und den dortigen Doping-Daten und. Fußball, Wirtschaft und Politik sind eng miteinander verflochten. Die Weltmeisterschaft in Russland ist für die Regierung Putin die Chance sich der. Beginnt ein autoritäres Jahrhundert? Manche Nationalsportarten sind von den Regierungen als solche festgelegt. Suche nach Emiliano Sala soll weitergehen. Zwischen Deutschland und Russland entwickelte sich ein enger kultureller und bildungspolitischer Austausch. Die Gesamtzahl der 300 online beträgt 73,5 Millionen

Under the doctrine of state atheism in the Soviet Union, there was a "government-sponsored program of forced conversion to atheism " conducted by Communists.

During the first five years of Soviet power, the Bolsheviks executed 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and over 1, Russian Orthodox priests.

Many others were imprisoned or exiled. Believers were harassed and persecuted. Most seminaries were closed, and the publication of most religious material was prohibited.

By only churches remained open out of about 54, in existence prior to World War I. In August , the Soviet government decided to improve relations with Germany by concluding the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact , pledging non-aggression between the two countries and dividing Eastern Europe into their respective spheres of influence.

Although the German army had considerable early success, their attack was halted in the Battle of Moscow. Subsequently, the Germans were dealt major defeats first at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of —43, [90] and then in the Battle of Kursk in the summer of Another German failure was the Siege of Leningrad , in which the city was fully blockaded on land between and by German and Finnish forces, and suffered starvation and more than a million deaths, but never surrendered.

The full demographic loss to the Soviet peoples was even greater. The Soviet rear was also badly damaged by the German invasion. Luftwaffe bombed the cities of the Soviet Union from the air.

Gorky suffered the most from the bombing. The bombing of the Volga capital destroyed the largest automobile plant GAZ.

This plant supplied tanks for the front. Whole residential areas and other large factories of the city were destroyed.

From to , German pilots bombed different areas of the city. This bombardment is comparable to the London Blitz. Some damage remained until this time.

Dependent socialist governments were installed in the Eastern Bloc satellite states. Significant amounts of Soviet resources were allocated in aid to the other socialist states.

The penal labor system was reformed and many prisoners were released and rehabilitated many of them posthumously. At the same time, tensions with the United States heightened when the two rivals clashed over the deployment of the United States Jupiter missiles in Turkey and Soviet missiles in Cuba.

Following the ousting of Khrushchev in , another period of collective rule ensued, until Leonid Brezhnev became the leader.

The era of the s and the early s was later designated as the Era of Stagnation , a period when economic growth slowed and social policies became static.

The Kosygin reform aimed for partial decentralization of the Soviet economy and shifted the emphasis from heavy industry and weapons to light industry and consumer goods but was stifled by the conservative Communist leadership.

In , after a Communist-led revolution in Afghanistan, Soviet forces entered that country. The occupation drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.

Ultimately, the Soviet Army was withdrawn from Afghanistan in due to international opposition, persistent anti-Soviet guerrilla warfare, and a lack of support by Soviet citizens.

From onwards, the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev , who sought to enact liberal reforms in the Soviet system, introduced the policies of glasnost openness and perestroika restructuring in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation and to democratise the government.

This, however, led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements. Prior to , the Soviet economy was the second largest in the world, [] but during its last years it was afflicted by shortages of goods in grocery stores, huge budget deficits, and explosive growth in the money supply leading to inflation.

By , economic and political turmoil began to boil over, as the Baltic republics chose to secede from the Soviet Union. On March 17, a referendum was held, in which the vast majority of participating citizens voted in favour of changing the Soviet Union into a renewed federation.

During and after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, wide-ranging reforms including privatization and market and trade liberalization were undertaken, [] including radical changes along the lines of " shock therapy " as recommended by the United States and the International Monetary Fund.

The privatization largely shifted control of enterprises from state agencies to individuals with inside connections in the government.

Many of the newly rich moved billions in cash and assets outside of the country in an enormous capital flight.

The s were plagued by armed conflicts in the North Caucasus , both local ethnic skirmishes and separatist Islamist insurrections.

From the time Chechen separatists declared independence in the early s, an intermittent guerrilla war has been fought between the rebel groups and the Russian military.

Terrorist attacks against civilians carried out by separatists, most notably the Moscow theater hostage crisis and Beslan school siege , caused hundreds of deaths and drew worldwide attention.

On December 31, , President Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned, handing the post to the recently appointed Prime Minister, Vladimir Putin , who then won the presidential election.

Putin suppressed the Chechen insurgency although sporadic violence still occurs throughout the Northern Caucasus. Putin returned to the presidency following the presidential elections , and Medvedev was appointed Prime Minister.

In , after President Viktor Yanukovych of Ukraine fled as a result of a revolution , Putin requested and received authorization from the Russian Parliament to deploy Russian troops to Ukraine.

On March 27 the United Nations General Assembly voted in favor of a non-binding resolution opposing the Russian annexation of Crimea by a vote of member states in favour, 11 against and 58 abstentions.

According to the Constitution of Russia , the country is a federation and semi-presidential republic, wherein the President is the head of state [] and the Prime Minister is the head of government.

The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a multi-party representative democracy , with the federal government composed of three branches:.

The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term eligible for a second term, but not for a third consecutive term.

In , Russia was ranked as th of countries in the Democracy Index , compiled by The Economist Intelligence Unit, [] while the World Justice Project , as of [update] , ranked Russia 80th of 99 countries surveyed in terms of rule of law.

The Russian Federation is recognized in international law as a successor state of the former Soviet Union. Russia has a multifaceted foreign policy.

As of [update] , it maintains diplomatic relations with countries and has embassies. The foreign policy is determined by the President and implemented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia.

While Russia is commonly accepted to be a great power , in recent years it has been characterized by a number of world leaders, [] [] scholars, [] commentators and politicians [] as a currently reinstating or potential superpower.

Russia is one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council. The legal basis for EU relations with Russia is the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, which came into force in In particular, such organisations as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch consider Russia to have not enough democratic attributes and to allow few political rights and civil liberties to its citizens.

The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has called the Freedom in the World report "prefabricated", stating that the human rights issues have been turned into a political weapon in particular by the United States.

The ministry also claims that such organisations as Freedom House and Human Rights Watch use the same scheme of voluntary extrapolation of "isolated facts that of course can be found in any country" into "dominant tendencies".

There are also three independent arms of service: As of [update] , the military comprised over 1 million active duty personnel, the fifth largest in the world.

Russia has the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons in the world, the second largest fleet of ballistic missile submarines , and the only modern strategic bomber force outside the United States.

The country has a large and fully indigenous arms industry , producing most of its own military equipment with only a few types of weapons imported.

In —14, Russia delivered weapons to 56 states and to rebel forces in eastern Ukraine. The official budget is set to rise to 3.

Federal subjects According to the Constitution , the country comprises eighty-five federal subjects , [] including the disputed Republic of Crimea and federal city of Sevastopol.

These subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council. Federal subjects are grouped into eight federal districts , each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia.

Yermak mustered an army and pushed eastward where he conquered nearly all the lands once belonging to the Mongols , defeating their ruler, Khan Kuchum.

Russia has a wide natural resource base, including major deposits of timber, petroleum, natural gas, coal, ores and other mineral resources.

The Russian Federation spans 11 time zones. Most of Russia consists of vast stretches of plains that are predominantly steppe to the south and heavily forested to the north, with tundra along the northern coast.

The Ural Mountains , rich in mineral resources, form a north-south range that divides Europe and Asia. Russia is second only to Brazil in volume of the total renewable water resources.

The enormous size of Russia and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental climate , which is prevalent in all parts of the country except for the tundra and the extreme southwest.

Mountains in the south obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Indian Ocean, while the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences.

Both the strip of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean and the Russian Arctic islands have a polar climate. The coastal part of Krasnodar Krai on the Black Sea, most notably in Sochi , possesses a humid subtropical climate with mild and wet winters.

In many regions of East Siberia and the Far East, winter is dry compared to summer; other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons.

Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some areas of southernmost Siberia, possesses a semi-arid climate.

Throughout much of the territory there are only two distinct seasons—winter and summer—as spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low and extremely high temperatures.

Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east.

Summers can be quite hot, even in Siberia. From north to south the East European Plain , also known as Russian Plain, is clad sequentially in Arctic tundra , coniferous forest taiga , mixed and broad-leaf forests , grassland steppe , and semi-desert fringing the Caspian Sea , as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate.

Siberia supports a similar sequence but is largely taiga. There are mammal species and bird species in Russia. A total of animal species have been included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation as of and are now protected.

Russia has an upper-middle income mixed economy [] with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas.

Since the turn of the 21st century, higher domestic consumption and greater political stability have bolstered economic growth in Russia. The country ended with its ninth straight year of growth, but growth has slowed with the decline in the price of oil and gas.

A simpler, more streamlined tax code adopted in reduced the tax burden on people and dramatically increased state revenue. This ranks it as the country with the second most attractive personal tax system for single managers in the world after the United Arab Emirates.

Inequality of household income and wealth has also been noted, with Credit Suisse finding Russian wealth distribution so much more extreme than other countries studied it "deserves to be placed in a separate category.

The Norwegian-Russian Chamber of Commerce also states that "[c]orruption is one of the biggest problems both Russian and international companies have to deal with.

The Russian central bank announced plans in to free float the Russian ruble in However, the Russian economy began stagnating in late and in combination with the War in Donbass is in danger of entering stagflation, slow growth and high inflation.

The recent decline in the Russian ruble has increased the costs for Russian companies to make interest payments on debt issued in U.

In recent years, Russia has frequently been described in the media as an energy superpower. Russia is the 3rd largest electricity producer in the world [] and the 5th largest renewable energy producer , the latter because of the well-developed hydroelectricity production in the country.

The Asian part of Russia also features a number of major hydropower stations; however, the gigantic hydroelectric potential of Siberia and the Russian Far East largely remains unexploited.

Currently the country is the 4th largest nuclear energy producer , [] with all nuclear power in Russia being managed by Rosatom State Corporation.

The sector is rapidly developing, with an aim of increasing the total share of nuclear energy from current In May on a two-day trip to Shanghai, President Putin signed a deal on behalf of Gazprom for the Russian energy giant to supply China with 38 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year.

Reuters reported that U. This restoration of agriculture was supported by a credit policy of the government, helping both individual farmers and large privatized corporate farms that once were Soviet kolkhozes and which still own the significant share of agricultural land.

Since Russia borders three oceans the Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific , Russian fishing fleets are a major world fish supplier. Russia captured 3,, tons of fish in Railway transport in Russia is mostly under the control of the state-run Russian Railways monopoly.

The company accounts for over 3. In the European part of the country the network of channels connects the basins of major rivers.

In the country owned 1, merchant marine ships. By total length of pipelines Russia is second only to the United States. Russia has 1, airports, [] the busiest being Sheremetyevo , Domodedovo , and Vnukovo in Moscow, and Pulkovo in St.

Typically, major Russian cities have well-developed systems of public transport, with the most common varieties of exploited vehicles being bus, trolleybus and tram.

The total length of metros in Russia is Moscow Metro and Saint Petersburg Metro are the oldest in Russia, opened in and respectively.

These two are among the fastest and busiest metro systems in the world, and some of them are famous for rich decorations and unique designs of their stations, which is a common tradition in Russian metros and railways.

Science and technology in Russia blossomed since the Age of Enlightenment , when Peter the Great founded the Russian Academy of Sciences and Saint Petersburg State University , and polymath Mikhail Lomonosov established the Moscow State University , paving the way for a strong native tradition in learning and innovation.

In the 19th and 20th centuries the country produced a large number of notable scientists and inventors. The Russian physics school began with Lomonosov who proposed the law of conservation of matter preceding the energy conservation law.

Lasers and masers were co-invented by Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov , while the idea of tokamak for controlled nuclear fusion was introduced by Igor Tamm , Andrei Sakharov and Lev Artsimovich , leading eventually the modern international ITER project, where Russia is a party.

Since the time of Nikolay Lobachevsky the " Copernicus of Geometry " who pioneered the non-Euclidean geometry and a prominent tutor Pafnuty Chebyshev , the Russian mathematical school became one of the most influential in the world.

In the 20th century Soviet mathematicians, such as Andrey Kolmogorov , Israel Gelfand , and Sergey Sobolev , made major contributions to various areas of mathematics.

Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleev invented the Periodic table , the main framework of modern chemistry. Aleksandr Butlerov was one of the creators of the theory of chemical structure , playing a central role in organic chemistry.

Russian biologists include Dmitry Ivanovsky who discovered viruses, Ivan Pavlov who was the first to experiment with the classical conditioning , and Ilya Mechnikov who was a pioneer researcher of the immune system and probiotics.

Russian inventions include arc welding by Nikolay Benardos , further developed by Nikolay Slavyanov , Konstantin Khrenov and other Russian engineers.

Gleb Kotelnikov invented the knapsack parachute , while Evgeniy Chertovsky introduced the pressure suit. Alexander Lodygin and Pavel Yablochkov were pioneers of electric lighting , and Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky introduced the first three-phase electric power systems, widely used today.

Sergei Lebedev invented the first commercially viable and mass-produced type of synthetic rubber. The first ternary computer , Setun , was developed by Nikolay Brusentsov.

In the 20th century a number of prominent Soviet aerospace engineers , inspired by the fundamental works of Nikolai Zhukovsky , Sergei Chaplygin and others, designed many hundreds of models of military and civilian aircraft and founded a number of KBs Construction Bureaus that now constitute the bulk of Russian United Aircraft Corporation.

Famous Russian aircraft include the civilian Tu -series, Su and MiG fighter aircraft, Ka and Mi -series helicopters; many Russian aircraft models are on the list of most produced aircraft in history.

With all these achievements, however, since the late Soviet era Russia was lagging behind the West in a number of technologies, mostly those related to energy conservation and consumer goods production.

The crisis of the s led to the drastic reduction of the state support for science and a brain drain migration from Russia.

In the s, on the wave of a new economic boom, the situation in the Russian science and technology has improved, and the government launched a campaign aimed into modernisation and innovation.

The country is developing its own fifth-generation jet fighter and constructing the first serial mobile nuclear plant in the world.

Russian achievements in the field of space technology and space exploration are traced back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky , the father of theoretical astronautics.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union , some government-funded space exploration programs, including the Buran space shuttle program, were cancelled or delayed, while participation of the Russian space industry in commercial activities and international cooperation intensified.

Nowadays Russia is the largest satellite launcher. Luna-Glob is a Russian Moon exploration programme, with first planned mission launch in Roscosmos is also developing the Federation spacecraft, to replace the aging Soyuz, it could also take potential crewed mission to lunar orbit as early as In Russia, approximately 70 per cent of drinking water comes from surface water and 30 per cent from groundwater.

In , water supply systems had a total capacity of 90 million cubic metres a day. The average residential water use was litres per capita per day.

The water utilities sector is one of the largest industries in Russia serving the entire Russian population. There are many different estimates of the actual cost of corruption.

In the s, businessmen had to pay different criminal groups to provide a " krysha " literally, a "roof", i. Nowadays, this "protective" function is performed by officials.

In the end, the Russian population pays for this corruption. Corporate, property, and land raiding is commonplace. On March 26, , protests against alleged corruption in the federal Russian government took place simultaneously in many cities across the country.

In all, different other ethnic groups and indigenous peoples live within its borders. It began to experience a rapid decline starting in the mids.

In , Russia recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years, with total growth of 10, According to the Census, Russia recorded 1,, births, the highest number since , and even exceeding annual births during the period —, with a TFR of about 1.

Vital statistics table below. Russia is a multi-national state with over ethnic groups designated as nationalities; the populations of these groups vary enormously, from millions e.

Despite its wide distribution, the Russian language is homogeneous throughout the country. Russian is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, as well as the most widely spoken Slavic language.

Russian is the second-most used language on the Internet after English, [] one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station [] and is one of the six official languages of the UN.

Russians have practised Orthodox Christianity since the 10th century. According to the historical traditions of the Orthodox Church, Christianity was first brought to the territory of modern Belarus , Russia and Ukraine by Saint Andrew , the first Apostle of Jesus Christ.

Крещение Руси , Ukrainian: Much of the Russian population, like other Slavic peoples, preserved for centuries a double belief dvoeverie in both indigenous religion and Orthodox Christianity.

At the time of the Revolution , the Russian Orthodox Church was deeply integrated into the autocratic state , enjoying official status. This was a significant factor that contributed to the Bolshevik attitude to religion and the steps they took to control it.

Bolsheviks consisted of many people with non-Russian, Communist Russians and influential Jewish backgrounds such as Vladimir Lenin , Leon Trotsky , Grigory Zinoviev , Lev Kamenev , Grigori Sokolnikov who were indifferent towards Christianity and based on the writings of German philosopher Karl Marx with Marxism—Leninism as an ideology went on to form the Communist party.

Thus the USSR became one of the first communist states to proclaim, as an ideological objective, the elimination of religion [] and its replacement with universal atheism.

State atheism in the Soviet Union was known in Russian as gosateizm , [] and was based on the ideology of Marxism—Leninism.

Marxist—Leninist Atheism has consistently advocated the control, suppression, and elimination of religion.

Within about a year of the revolution, the state expropriated all church property, including the churches themselves, and in the period from to , 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and more than 1, priests were killed.

Many more were persecuted. Currently, there is no official census of religion in Russia, and estimates are based on surveys only.

In the research organization Sreda published Arena Atlas, a detailed enumeration of religious populations and nationalities in Russia, based on a large-sample country-wide survey.

They found that Easter is the most popular religious holiday in Russia, celebrated by a large segment of the Russian population, including large numbers of those who are non-religious.

More than three-quarters of the Russian population celebrate Easter by making traditional Easter cakes, coloured eggs and paskha.

Islam is the second largest religion in Russia after Russian Orthodoxy. Buddhism is traditional in three regions of the Russian Federation: Buryatia , Tuva , and Kalmykia.

In cultural and social affairs Vladimir Putin has collaborated closely with the Russian Orthodox Church. Patriarch Kirill of Moscow , head of the Church, endorsed his election in Steven Myers reports, "The church, once heavily repressed, had emerged from the Soviet collapse as one of the most respected institutions Now Kiril led the faithful directly into an alliance with the state.

On April 26, , for the first time, The U. The report states, "—it is the sole state to have not only continually intensified its repression of religious freedom since USCIRF commenced monitoring it, but also to have expanded its repressive policies The Russian Constitution guarantees free, universal health care for all its citizens.

Due to the ongoing Russian financial crisis since , major cuts in health spending have resulted in a decline in the quality of service of the state healthcare system.

Waiting times for treatment have increased, and patients have been forced to pay for more services that were previously free.

As of [update] , the average life expectancy in Russia was Deaths mostly occur from preventable causes, including alcohol poisoning, smoking, traffic accidents and violent crime.

Since , the year school education has been introduced. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free.

University level education is free, with exceptions. A substantial share of students is enrolled for full pay many state institutions started to open commercial positions in the last years.

In the s, in order to create higher education and research institutions of comparable scale in Russian regions, the government launched a program of establishing "federal universities", mostly by merging existing large regional universities and research institutes and providing them with a special funding.

There are over different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples in Russia. Handicraft , like Dymkovo toy , khokhloma , gzhel and palekh miniature represent an important aspect of Russian folk culture.

Ethnic Russian clothes include kaftan , kosovorotka and ushanka for men, sarafan and kokoshnik for women, with lapti and valenki as common shoes.

The clothes of Cossacks from Southern Russia include burka and papaha , which they share with the peoples of the Northern Caucasus. Russian cuisine widely uses fish, caviar, poultry, mushrooms, berries, and honey.

Crops of rye , wheat, barley , and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for kvass , beer and vodka drinks.

Black bread is rather popular in Russia, compared to the rest of the world. Flavourful soups and stews include shchi , borsch , ukha , solyanka and okroshka.

Smetana a heavy sour cream is often added to soups and salads. Pirozhki , blini and syrniki are native types of pancakes. Chicken Kiev , pelmeni and shashlyk are popular meat dishes, the last two being of Tatar and Caucasus origin respectively.

Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls golubtsy usually filled with meat. Typical ethnic Russian musical instruments are gusli , balalaika , zhaleika , and garmoshka.

Folk music had a significant influence on Russian classical composers, and in modern times it is a source of inspiration for a number of popular folk bands , like Melnitsa.

Russian folk songs , as well as patriotic Soviet songs , constitute the bulk of the repertoire of the world-renowned Red Army choir and other popular ensembles.

Russians have many traditions , including the washing in banya , a hot steam bath somewhat similar to sauna. Many Russian fairy tales and epic bylinas were adapted for animation films, or for feature movies by the prominent directors like Aleksandr Ptushko Ilya Muromets , Sadko and Aleksandr Rou Morozko , Vasilisa the Beautiful.

Russian poets, including Pyotr Yershov and Leonid Filatov , made a number of well-known poetical interpretations of the classical fairy tales, and in some cases, like that of Alexander Pushkin , also created fully original fairy tale poems of great popularity.

After the reforms of Peter the Great the change of architectural styles in Russia generally followed that in the Western Europe. The 18th-century taste for rococo architecture led to the ornate works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers.

The second half of the 19th century was dominated by the Neo-Byzantine and Russian Revival styles. Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the Art Nouveau , Constructivism , and the Stalin Empire style.

With the change in values imposed by communist ideology , the tradition of preservation was broken. Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the s.

A new anti-religious campaign, launched in , coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around A number of churches were demolished, including the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow.

In Moscow alone losses of — are estimated at over notable buildings including to listed buildings, out of a total inventory of 3, — some disappeared completely, others were replaced with concrete replicas.

In , a new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev , condemned the "excesses" of the former academic architecture, [] and the late Soviet era was dominated by plain functionalism in architecture.

This helped somewhat to resolve the housing problem, but created a large quantity of buildings of low architectural quality, much in contrast with the previous bright styles.

In Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign. By over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down mostly in rural areas and many were demolished.

Early Russian painting is represented in icons and vibrant frescos , the two genres inherited from Byzantium. As Moscow rose to power, Theophanes the Greek , Dionisius and Andrei Rublev became vital names associated with a distinctly Russian art.

The Russian Academy of Arts was created in [] and gave Russian artists an international role and status. Ivan Argunov , Dmitry Levitzky , Vladimir Borovikovsky and other 18th-century academicians mostly focused on portrait painting.

In the early 19th century, when neoclassicism and romantism flourished, mythological and Biblical themes inspired many prominent paintings, notably by Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov.

In the midth century the Peredvizhniki Wanderers group of artists broke with the Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from academic restrictions.

Some artists focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history, while others turned to social criticism , showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II.

November meddelade Kremls bibliotek att man planerade en "alternativ Wikipedia". Rysslands administrativa indelning , Rysslands federala distrikt och Rysslands federationssubjekt.

Visningar Visa Redigera Redigera wikitext Visa historik. Sidan redigerades senast den 29 januari kl. Jurij Kovaltjuk via National Media Group —.

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Einmal in Russland: "Sport und Tanz - gratis in Moskau" Die Rusada war nach Aufdeckung des staatlich gelenkten Dopings am Angekündigt ist auch eine weitere Steigerung der Sozialausgaben. Der Kapitalismus Ohrenkuss Was ist das? Umso stärker die Lebensqualität steigen wird, desto wichtiger und dringlicher werden in Zukunft Umweltfragen in Russlands Öffentlichkeit und Politik diskutiert. Eigentlich spielt hier nur eine Mannschaft. Dabei gerieten sie aber unter deren Kontrolle, die durch Manipulationen politischen Einfluss über die Medien ausüben. Anfang Mai kommen dazu überall in Russland festlich gekleidete Kriegsveteranen zusammen und gedenken der gefallenen Kameraden. Russische und kenianische Leichtathleten können über einen Umweg doch bei den Olympischen Spielen in Rio starten. Präsident Putin versprach im Wahlkampf eine Anhebung der Gehälter im öffentlichen Dienst sowie der Stipendien für Studenten, [] da etwa die Hälfte der Bevölkerung zwar nicht als offiziell arm zählt, aber zu der einkommensschwachen Schicht zu zählen ist, die nicht in der Lage ist, zentrale soziale Bedürfnisse wie Wohnraum oder zusätzliche Ausbildung zu finanzieren. Ecke für die Russen. Führung erfordere "Flexibilität" und eine "nuancierte Interpretation" der Zulassungskriterien, "um die Sache zu einem Ende zu bringen". Das zeigt, dass für die Gäste an nichts gespart wird. Diese Domain wird von russischen Websites teilweise bis heute benutzt. März gut Casino schleswig. Aber der Kopfball im Strafraum geht weit am langen Pfosten vorbei. Typisch russisches Salate sind Vinaigrette russ. Wissenschaft als soziale Einrichtung entstand in Russland aber erst Geld mit sportwetten des Petersburg tendierte die Erwerbslosigkeit gegen Null. Damit liegt eurojackpot nachrichten Entscheidung über die Zulassung eines russischen Sportlers bei den jeweiligen Weltsportverbänden. Dort wohnen oft mehrere Generationen in einer Wohnung oder in einem Haus. So stammen die ersten duisburg gegen paderborn Chroniken, die Nestorchronikenaus dem Jahr Russischer Wodka wird aus Getreide hergestellt. Offiziell lag dabei das Existenzminimum bei Euro für einen Menschen im arbeitsfähigen Alter; bei Kindern liegt der Wert unwesentlich niedriger, bei Rentnern beträgt er Euro. Der Trainer der Russen, Tschertschessow, hat überraschend die Sport russland überstanden und dabei erstaunlich viele Tore erzielt. Die Produktion ging stark zurück.

En provisorisk regering under Aleksandr Kerenskij installerades. Efter freden i Brest-Litovsk drog sig Ryssland ur kriget. Stalin industrialiserade Sovjetunionen och skapade en stormakt av det tidigare omoderna landet.

Det finns fyra partier i statsduman. Den ryska krigsmakten har i fredstid en personalstyrka om en miljon soldater. Allra sydligaste Ryssland, vid Svarta havs - kusten har subtropiskt klimat.

Se vidare rysk musik. November meddelade Kremls bibliotek att man planerade en "alternativ Wikipedia". Rysslands administrativa indelning , Rysslands federala distrikt och Rysslands federationssubjekt.

Visningar Visa Redigera Redigera wikitext Visa historik. From to , German pilots bombed different areas of the city. This bombardment is comparable to the London Blitz.

Some damage remained until this time. Dependent socialist governments were installed in the Eastern Bloc satellite states.

Significant amounts of Soviet resources were allocated in aid to the other socialist states. The penal labor system was reformed and many prisoners were released and rehabilitated many of them posthumously.

At the same time, tensions with the United States heightened when the two rivals clashed over the deployment of the United States Jupiter missiles in Turkey and Soviet missiles in Cuba.

Following the ousting of Khrushchev in , another period of collective rule ensued, until Leonid Brezhnev became the leader.

The era of the s and the early s was later designated as the Era of Stagnation , a period when economic growth slowed and social policies became static.

The Kosygin reform aimed for partial decentralization of the Soviet economy and shifted the emphasis from heavy industry and weapons to light industry and consumer goods but was stifled by the conservative Communist leadership.

In , after a Communist-led revolution in Afghanistan, Soviet forces entered that country. The occupation drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.

Ultimately, the Soviet Army was withdrawn from Afghanistan in due to international opposition, persistent anti-Soviet guerrilla warfare, and a lack of support by Soviet citizens.

From onwards, the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev , who sought to enact liberal reforms in the Soviet system, introduced the policies of glasnost openness and perestroika restructuring in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation and to democratise the government.

This, however, led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements. Prior to , the Soviet economy was the second largest in the world, [] but during its last years it was afflicted by shortages of goods in grocery stores, huge budget deficits, and explosive growth in the money supply leading to inflation.

By , economic and political turmoil began to boil over, as the Baltic republics chose to secede from the Soviet Union. On March 17, a referendum was held, in which the vast majority of participating citizens voted in favour of changing the Soviet Union into a renewed federation.

During and after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, wide-ranging reforms including privatization and market and trade liberalization were undertaken, [] including radical changes along the lines of " shock therapy " as recommended by the United States and the International Monetary Fund.

The privatization largely shifted control of enterprises from state agencies to individuals with inside connections in the government.

Many of the newly rich moved billions in cash and assets outside of the country in an enormous capital flight. The s were plagued by armed conflicts in the North Caucasus , both local ethnic skirmishes and separatist Islamist insurrections.

From the time Chechen separatists declared independence in the early s, an intermittent guerrilla war has been fought between the rebel groups and the Russian military.

Terrorist attacks against civilians carried out by separatists, most notably the Moscow theater hostage crisis and Beslan school siege , caused hundreds of deaths and drew worldwide attention.

On December 31, , President Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned, handing the post to the recently appointed Prime Minister, Vladimir Putin , who then won the presidential election.

Putin suppressed the Chechen insurgency although sporadic violence still occurs throughout the Northern Caucasus. Putin returned to the presidency following the presidential elections , and Medvedev was appointed Prime Minister.

In , after President Viktor Yanukovych of Ukraine fled as a result of a revolution , Putin requested and received authorization from the Russian Parliament to deploy Russian troops to Ukraine.

On March 27 the United Nations General Assembly voted in favor of a non-binding resolution opposing the Russian annexation of Crimea by a vote of member states in favour, 11 against and 58 abstentions.

According to the Constitution of Russia , the country is a federation and semi-presidential republic, wherein the President is the head of state [] and the Prime Minister is the head of government.

The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a multi-party representative democracy , with the federal government composed of three branches:.

The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term eligible for a second term, but not for a third consecutive term.

In , Russia was ranked as th of countries in the Democracy Index , compiled by The Economist Intelligence Unit, [] while the World Justice Project , as of [update] , ranked Russia 80th of 99 countries surveyed in terms of rule of law.

The Russian Federation is recognized in international law as a successor state of the former Soviet Union. Russia has a multifaceted foreign policy.

As of [update] , it maintains diplomatic relations with countries and has embassies. The foreign policy is determined by the President and implemented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia.

While Russia is commonly accepted to be a great power , in recent years it has been characterized by a number of world leaders, [] [] scholars, [] commentators and politicians [] as a currently reinstating or potential superpower.

Russia is one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council. The legal basis for EU relations with Russia is the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, which came into force in In particular, such organisations as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch consider Russia to have not enough democratic attributes and to allow few political rights and civil liberties to its citizens.

The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has called the Freedom in the World report "prefabricated", stating that the human rights issues have been turned into a political weapon in particular by the United States.

The ministry also claims that such organisations as Freedom House and Human Rights Watch use the same scheme of voluntary extrapolation of "isolated facts that of course can be found in any country" into "dominant tendencies".

There are also three independent arms of service: As of [update] , the military comprised over 1 million active duty personnel, the fifth largest in the world.

Russia has the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons in the world, the second largest fleet of ballistic missile submarines , and the only modern strategic bomber force outside the United States.

The country has a large and fully indigenous arms industry , producing most of its own military equipment with only a few types of weapons imported.

In —14, Russia delivered weapons to 56 states and to rebel forces in eastern Ukraine. The official budget is set to rise to 3.

Federal subjects According to the Constitution , the country comprises eighty-five federal subjects , [] including the disputed Republic of Crimea and federal city of Sevastopol.

These subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council. Federal subjects are grouped into eight federal districts , each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia.

Yermak mustered an army and pushed eastward where he conquered nearly all the lands once belonging to the Mongols , defeating their ruler, Khan Kuchum.

Russia has a wide natural resource base, including major deposits of timber, petroleum, natural gas, coal, ores and other mineral resources.

The Russian Federation spans 11 time zones. Most of Russia consists of vast stretches of plains that are predominantly steppe to the south and heavily forested to the north, with tundra along the northern coast.

The Ural Mountains , rich in mineral resources, form a north-south range that divides Europe and Asia. Russia is second only to Brazil in volume of the total renewable water resources.

The enormous size of Russia and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental climate , which is prevalent in all parts of the country except for the tundra and the extreme southwest.

Mountains in the south obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Indian Ocean, while the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences.

Both the strip of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean and the Russian Arctic islands have a polar climate.

The coastal part of Krasnodar Krai on the Black Sea, most notably in Sochi , possesses a humid subtropical climate with mild and wet winters.

In many regions of East Siberia and the Far East, winter is dry compared to summer; other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons.

Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some areas of southernmost Siberia, possesses a semi-arid climate.

Throughout much of the territory there are only two distinct seasons—winter and summer—as spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low and extremely high temperatures.

Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east.

Summers can be quite hot, even in Siberia. From north to south the East European Plain , also known as Russian Plain, is clad sequentially in Arctic tundra , coniferous forest taiga , mixed and broad-leaf forests , grassland steppe , and semi-desert fringing the Caspian Sea , as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate.

Siberia supports a similar sequence but is largely taiga. There are mammal species and bird species in Russia.

A total of animal species have been included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation as of and are now protected.

Russia has an upper-middle income mixed economy [] with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas.

Since the turn of the 21st century, higher domestic consumption and greater political stability have bolstered economic growth in Russia. The country ended with its ninth straight year of growth, but growth has slowed with the decline in the price of oil and gas.

A simpler, more streamlined tax code adopted in reduced the tax burden on people and dramatically increased state revenue. This ranks it as the country with the second most attractive personal tax system for single managers in the world after the United Arab Emirates.

Inequality of household income and wealth has also been noted, with Credit Suisse finding Russian wealth distribution so much more extreme than other countries studied it "deserves to be placed in a separate category.

The Norwegian-Russian Chamber of Commerce also states that "[c]orruption is one of the biggest problems both Russian and international companies have to deal with.

The Russian central bank announced plans in to free float the Russian ruble in However, the Russian economy began stagnating in late and in combination with the War in Donbass is in danger of entering stagflation, slow growth and high inflation.

The recent decline in the Russian ruble has increased the costs for Russian companies to make interest payments on debt issued in U.

In recent years, Russia has frequently been described in the media as an energy superpower. Russia is the 3rd largest electricity producer in the world [] and the 5th largest renewable energy producer , the latter because of the well-developed hydroelectricity production in the country.

The Asian part of Russia also features a number of major hydropower stations; however, the gigantic hydroelectric potential of Siberia and the Russian Far East largely remains unexploited.

Currently the country is the 4th largest nuclear energy producer , [] with all nuclear power in Russia being managed by Rosatom State Corporation.

The sector is rapidly developing, with an aim of increasing the total share of nuclear energy from current In May on a two-day trip to Shanghai, President Putin signed a deal on behalf of Gazprom for the Russian energy giant to supply China with 38 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year.

Reuters reported that U. This restoration of agriculture was supported by a credit policy of the government, helping both individual farmers and large privatized corporate farms that once were Soviet kolkhozes and which still own the significant share of agricultural land.

Since Russia borders three oceans the Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific , Russian fishing fleets are a major world fish supplier. Russia captured 3,, tons of fish in Railway transport in Russia is mostly under the control of the state-run Russian Railways monopoly.

The company accounts for over 3. In the European part of the country the network of channels connects the basins of major rivers.

In the country owned 1, merchant marine ships. By total length of pipelines Russia is second only to the United States. Russia has 1, airports, [] the busiest being Sheremetyevo , Domodedovo , and Vnukovo in Moscow, and Pulkovo in St.

Typically, major Russian cities have well-developed systems of public transport, with the most common varieties of exploited vehicles being bus, trolleybus and tram.

The total length of metros in Russia is Moscow Metro and Saint Petersburg Metro are the oldest in Russia, opened in and respectively.

These two are among the fastest and busiest metro systems in the world, and some of them are famous for rich decorations and unique designs of their stations, which is a common tradition in Russian metros and railways.

Science and technology in Russia blossomed since the Age of Enlightenment , when Peter the Great founded the Russian Academy of Sciences and Saint Petersburg State University , and polymath Mikhail Lomonosov established the Moscow State University , paving the way for a strong native tradition in learning and innovation.

In the 19th and 20th centuries the country produced a large number of notable scientists and inventors. The Russian physics school began with Lomonosov who proposed the law of conservation of matter preceding the energy conservation law.

Lasers and masers were co-invented by Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov , while the idea of tokamak for controlled nuclear fusion was introduced by Igor Tamm , Andrei Sakharov and Lev Artsimovich , leading eventually the modern international ITER project, where Russia is a party.

Since the time of Nikolay Lobachevsky the " Copernicus of Geometry " who pioneered the non-Euclidean geometry and a prominent tutor Pafnuty Chebyshev , the Russian mathematical school became one of the most influential in the world.

In the 20th century Soviet mathematicians, such as Andrey Kolmogorov , Israel Gelfand , and Sergey Sobolev , made major contributions to various areas of mathematics.

Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleev invented the Periodic table , the main framework of modern chemistry. Aleksandr Butlerov was one of the creators of the theory of chemical structure , playing a central role in organic chemistry.

Russian biologists include Dmitry Ivanovsky who discovered viruses, Ivan Pavlov who was the first to experiment with the classical conditioning , and Ilya Mechnikov who was a pioneer researcher of the immune system and probiotics.

Russian inventions include arc welding by Nikolay Benardos , further developed by Nikolay Slavyanov , Konstantin Khrenov and other Russian engineers.

Gleb Kotelnikov invented the knapsack parachute , while Evgeniy Chertovsky introduced the pressure suit. Alexander Lodygin and Pavel Yablochkov were pioneers of electric lighting , and Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky introduced the first three-phase electric power systems, widely used today.

Sergei Lebedev invented the first commercially viable and mass-produced type of synthetic rubber. The first ternary computer , Setun , was developed by Nikolay Brusentsov.

In the 20th century a number of prominent Soviet aerospace engineers , inspired by the fundamental works of Nikolai Zhukovsky , Sergei Chaplygin and others, designed many hundreds of models of military and civilian aircraft and founded a number of KBs Construction Bureaus that now constitute the bulk of Russian United Aircraft Corporation.

Famous Russian aircraft include the civilian Tu -series, Su and MiG fighter aircraft, Ka and Mi -series helicopters; many Russian aircraft models are on the list of most produced aircraft in history.

With all these achievements, however, since the late Soviet era Russia was lagging behind the West in a number of technologies, mostly those related to energy conservation and consumer goods production.

The crisis of the s led to the drastic reduction of the state support for science and a brain drain migration from Russia. In the s, on the wave of a new economic boom, the situation in the Russian science and technology has improved, and the government launched a campaign aimed into modernisation and innovation.

The country is developing its own fifth-generation jet fighter and constructing the first serial mobile nuclear plant in the world. Russian achievements in the field of space technology and space exploration are traced back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky , the father of theoretical astronautics.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union , some government-funded space exploration programs, including the Buran space shuttle program, were cancelled or delayed, while participation of the Russian space industry in commercial activities and international cooperation intensified.

Nowadays Russia is the largest satellite launcher. Luna-Glob is a Russian Moon exploration programme, with first planned mission launch in Roscosmos is also developing the Federation spacecraft, to replace the aging Soyuz, it could also take potential crewed mission to lunar orbit as early as In Russia, approximately 70 per cent of drinking water comes from surface water and 30 per cent from groundwater.

In , water supply systems had a total capacity of 90 million cubic metres a day. The average residential water use was litres per capita per day.

The water utilities sector is one of the largest industries in Russia serving the entire Russian population. There are many different estimates of the actual cost of corruption.

In the s, businessmen had to pay different criminal groups to provide a " krysha " literally, a "roof", i. Nowadays, this "protective" function is performed by officials.

In the end, the Russian population pays for this corruption. Corporate, property, and land raiding is commonplace. On March 26, , protests against alleged corruption in the federal Russian government took place simultaneously in many cities across the country.

In all, different other ethnic groups and indigenous peoples live within its borders. It began to experience a rapid decline starting in the mids.

In , Russia recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years, with total growth of 10, According to the Census, Russia recorded 1,, births, the highest number since , and even exceeding annual births during the period —, with a TFR of about 1.

Vital statistics table below. Russia is a multi-national state with over ethnic groups designated as nationalities; the populations of these groups vary enormously, from millions e.

Despite its wide distribution, the Russian language is homogeneous throughout the country. Russian is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, as well as the most widely spoken Slavic language.

Russian is the second-most used language on the Internet after English, [] one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station [] and is one of the six official languages of the UN.

Russians have practised Orthodox Christianity since the 10th century. According to the historical traditions of the Orthodox Church, Christianity was first brought to the territory of modern Belarus , Russia and Ukraine by Saint Andrew , the first Apostle of Jesus Christ.

Крещение Руси , Ukrainian: Much of the Russian population, like other Slavic peoples, preserved for centuries a double belief dvoeverie in both indigenous religion and Orthodox Christianity.

At the time of the Revolution , the Russian Orthodox Church was deeply integrated into the autocratic state , enjoying official status.

This was a significant factor that contributed to the Bolshevik attitude to religion and the steps they took to control it. Bolsheviks consisted of many people with non-Russian, Communist Russians and influential Jewish backgrounds such as Vladimir Lenin , Leon Trotsky , Grigory Zinoviev , Lev Kamenev , Grigori Sokolnikov who were indifferent towards Christianity and based on the writings of German philosopher Karl Marx with Marxism—Leninism as an ideology went on to form the Communist party.

Thus the USSR became one of the first communist states to proclaim, as an ideological objective, the elimination of religion [] and its replacement with universal atheism.

State atheism in the Soviet Union was known in Russian as gosateizm , [] and was based on the ideology of Marxism—Leninism. Marxist—Leninist Atheism has consistently advocated the control, suppression, and elimination of religion.

Within about a year of the revolution, the state expropriated all church property, including the churches themselves, and in the period from to , 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and more than 1, priests were killed.

Many more were persecuted. Currently, there is no official census of religion in Russia, and estimates are based on surveys only. In the research organization Sreda published Arena Atlas, a detailed enumeration of religious populations and nationalities in Russia, based on a large-sample country-wide survey.

They found that Easter is the most popular religious holiday in Russia, celebrated by a large segment of the Russian population, including large numbers of those who are non-religious.

More than three-quarters of the Russian population celebrate Easter by making traditional Easter cakes, coloured eggs and paskha. Islam is the second largest religion in Russia after Russian Orthodoxy.

Buddhism is traditional in three regions of the Russian Federation: Buryatia , Tuva , and Kalmykia. In cultural and social affairs Vladimir Putin has collaborated closely with the Russian Orthodox Church.

Patriarch Kirill of Moscow , head of the Church, endorsed his election in Steven Myers reports, "The church, once heavily repressed, had emerged from the Soviet collapse as one of the most respected institutions Now Kiril led the faithful directly into an alliance with the state.

On April 26, , for the first time, The U. The report states, "—it is the sole state to have not only continually intensified its repression of religious freedom since USCIRF commenced monitoring it, but also to have expanded its repressive policies The Russian Constitution guarantees free, universal health care for all its citizens.

Due to the ongoing Russian financial crisis since , major cuts in health spending have resulted in a decline in the quality of service of the state healthcare system.

Waiting times for treatment have increased, and patients have been forced to pay for more services that were previously free. As of [update] , the average life expectancy in Russia was Deaths mostly occur from preventable causes, including alcohol poisoning, smoking, traffic accidents and violent crime.

Since , the year school education has been introduced. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free.

University level education is free, with exceptions. A substantial share of students is enrolled for full pay many state institutions started to open commercial positions in the last years.

In the s, in order to create higher education and research institutions of comparable scale in Russian regions, the government launched a program of establishing "federal universities", mostly by merging existing large regional universities and research institutes and providing them with a special funding.

There are over different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples in Russia. Handicraft , like Dymkovo toy , khokhloma , gzhel and palekh miniature represent an important aspect of Russian folk culture.

Ethnic Russian clothes include kaftan , kosovorotka and ushanka for men, sarafan and kokoshnik for women, with lapti and valenki as common shoes.

The clothes of Cossacks from Southern Russia include burka and papaha , which they share with the peoples of the Northern Caucasus. Russian cuisine widely uses fish, caviar, poultry, mushrooms, berries, and honey.

Crops of rye , wheat, barley , and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for kvass , beer and vodka drinks.

Black bread is rather popular in Russia, compared to the rest of the world. Flavourful soups and stews include shchi , borsch , ukha , solyanka and okroshka.

Smetana a heavy sour cream is often added to soups and salads. Pirozhki , blini and syrniki are native types of pancakes. Chicken Kiev , pelmeni and shashlyk are popular meat dishes, the last two being of Tatar and Caucasus origin respectively.

Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls golubtsy usually filled with meat. Typical ethnic Russian musical instruments are gusli , balalaika , zhaleika , and garmoshka.

Folk music had a significant influence on Russian classical composers, and in modern times it is a source of inspiration for a number of popular folk bands , like Melnitsa.

Russian folk songs , as well as patriotic Soviet songs , constitute the bulk of the repertoire of the world-renowned Red Army choir and other popular ensembles.

Russians have many traditions , including the washing in banya , a hot steam bath somewhat similar to sauna. Many Russian fairy tales and epic bylinas were adapted for animation films, or for feature movies by the prominent directors like Aleksandr Ptushko Ilya Muromets , Sadko and Aleksandr Rou Morozko , Vasilisa the Beautiful.

Russian poets, including Pyotr Yershov and Leonid Filatov , made a number of well-known poetical interpretations of the classical fairy tales, and in some cases, like that of Alexander Pushkin , also created fully original fairy tale poems of great popularity.

After the reforms of Peter the Great the change of architectural styles in Russia generally followed that in the Western Europe.

The 18th-century taste for rococo architecture led to the ornate works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers.

The second half of the 19th century was dominated by the Neo-Byzantine and Russian Revival styles. Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the Art Nouveau , Constructivism , and the Stalin Empire style.

With the change in values imposed by communist ideology , the tradition of preservation was broken. Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the s.

A new anti-religious campaign, launched in , coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around A number of churches were demolished, including the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow.

In Moscow alone losses of — are estimated at over notable buildings including to listed buildings, out of a total inventory of 3, — some disappeared completely, others were replaced with concrete replicas.

In , a new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev , condemned the "excesses" of the former academic architecture, [] and the late Soviet era was dominated by plain functionalism in architecture.

This helped somewhat to resolve the housing problem, but created a large quantity of buildings of low architectural quality, much in contrast with the previous bright styles.

In Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign. By over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down mostly in rural areas and many were demolished.

Early Russian painting is represented in icons and vibrant frescos , the two genres inherited from Byzantium. As Moscow rose to power, Theophanes the Greek , Dionisius and Andrei Rublev became vital names associated with a distinctly Russian art.

The Russian Academy of Arts was created in [] and gave Russian artists an international role and status. Ivan Argunov , Dmitry Levitzky , Vladimir Borovikovsky and other 18th-century academicians mostly focused on portrait painting.

In the early 19th century, when neoclassicism and romantism flourished, mythological and Biblical themes inspired many prominent paintings, notably by Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov.

In the midth century the Peredvizhniki Wanderers group of artists broke with the Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from academic restrictions.

Some artists focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history, while others turned to social criticism , showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II.

The turn of the 20th century saw the rise of symbolist painting, represented by Mikhail Vrubel , Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin , and Nicholas Roerich.

The Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of modernist art that flourished in Russia from approximately to The term covers many separate, but inextricably related art movements that occurred at the time, namely neo-primitivism , suprematism , constructivism , rayonism , and Russian Futurism.

Since the s the revolutionary ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged conservative direction of socialist realism.

Soviet art produced works that were furiously patriotic and anti-fascist during and after the Great Patriotic War. Multiple war memorials, marked by a great restrained solemnity, were built throughout the country.

Soviet artists often combined innovation with socialist realism, notably the sculptors Vera Mukhina , Yevgeny Vuchetich and Ernst Neizvestny.

Music in 19th-century Russia was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with other members of The Mighty Handful , who embraced Russian national identity and added religious and folk elements to their compositions, and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinsteins , which was musically conservative.

The later tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky , one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era , was continued into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff.

Russian conservatories have turned out generations of famous soloists. Modern Russian rock music takes its roots both in the Western rock and roll and heavy metal , and in traditions of the Russian bards of the Soviet era, such as Vladimir Vysotsky and Bulat Okudzhava.

Russian pop music developed from what was known in the Soviet times as estrada into full-fledged industry, with some performers gaining wide international recognition, such as t.

In the 18th century, during the era of Russian Enlightenment , the development of Russian literature was boosted by the works of Mikhail Lomonosov and Denis Fonvizin.

By the early 19th century a modern national tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers in Russian history.

This period, known also as the Golden Age of Russian Poetry , began with Alexander Pushkin , who is considered the founder of the modern Russian literary language and often described as the "Russian Shakespeare".

Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoyevsky have been described by literary critics as the greatest novelists of all time. By the s, the age of the great novelists was over, and short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres.

The next several decades became known as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry , when the previously dominant literary realism was replaced by symbolism.

Russian philosophy blossomed in the 19th century, when it was defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers , who advocated Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles , who insisted on developing Russia as a unique civilization.

The latter group includes Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev , the founders of eurasianism. In its further development Russian philosophy was always marked by a deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; Russian cosmism and religious philosophy were other major areas.

Notable philosophers of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyev , Sergei Bulgakov , and Vladimir Vernadsky.

Following the Russian Revolution of many prominent writers and philosophers left the country, including Bunin, Vladimir Nabokov and Nikolay Berdyayev , while a new generation of talented authors joined together in an effort to create a distinctive working-class culture appropriate for the new Soviet state.

In the s censorship over literature was tightened in line with the policy of socialist realism. In the late s restrictions on literature were eased, and by the s and s, writers were increasingly ignoring official guidelines.

Russian and later Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention in the period immediately following , resulting in world-renowned films such as The Battleship Potemkin by Sergei Eisenstein.

Dziga Vertov , whose kino-glaz "film-eye" theory—that the camera, like the human eye, is best used to explore real life—had a huge impact on the development of documentary film making and cinema realism.

The subsequent state policy of socialist realism somewhat limited creativity; however, many Soviet films in this style were artistically successful, including Chapaev , The Cranes Are Flying , and Ballad of a Soldier.

The s and s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in Soviet cinema. Russian animation dates back to late Russian Empire times. During the Soviet era, Soyuzmultfilm studio was the largest animation producer.

Soviet animators developed a great variety of pioneering techniques and aesthetic styles, with prominent directors including Ivan Ivanov-Vano , Fyodor Khitruk and Aleksandr Tatarsky.

The late s and s were a period of crisis in Russian cinema and animation. Although Russian filmmakers became free to express themselves, state subsidies were drastically reduced, resulting in fewer films produced.

The early years of the 21st century have brought increased viewership and subsequent prosperity to the industry on the back of the economic revival.

Production levels are already higher than in Britain and Germany. The traditions of Soviet animation were developed recently by such directors as Aleksandr Petrov and studios like Melnitsa Animation.

While there were few stations or channels in the Soviet time, in the past two decades many new state and privately owned radio stations and TV channels have appeared.

Censorship and Media freedom in Russia has always been a main theme of Russian media. Soviet and later Russian athletes have always been in the top four for the number of gold medals collected at the Summer Olympics.

Soviet gymnasts, track-and-field athletes, weightlifters, wrestlers, boxers, fencers, shooters, cross country skiers, biathletes, speed skaters and figure skaters were consistently among the best in the world, along with Soviet basketball, handball, volleyball and ice hockey players.

Although ice hockey was only introduced during the Soviet era, the Soviet Union national team managed to win gold at almost all the Olympics and World Championships they contested.

It is ranked the top hockey league in Europe as of [update] , [] and the second-best in the world. KHL is on the 4th place by attendance in Europe.

Bandy , also known as Russian hockey , is another traditionally popular ice sport. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia has continuously been one of the most successful teams, winning many world championships.

Association football is one of the most popular sports in modern Russia. The Soviet national team became the first European Champions by winning Euro In and , the Soviet Union won gold at the Olympic football tournament.

The Russian national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro , losing only to the eventual champions Spain. In , the Russian national basketball team won the European Basketball Championship.

Larisa Latynina , who currently holds the record for the most gold Olympic medals won by a woman, established the USSR as the dominant force in gymnastics for many years.

Figure skating is another popular sport in Russia, especially pair skating and ice dancing. With the exception of a Soviet or Russian pair has won gold at every Winter Olympics since Since the end of the Soviet era, tennis has grown in popularity and Russia has produced a number of famous players, including Maria Sharapova.

In martial arts, Russia produced the sport Sambo and renowned fighters, like Fedor Emelianenko. Chess is a widely popular pastime in Russia; from , Russian grandmasters have held the world chess championship almost continuously.

The Winter Olympics were held in Sochi in the south of Russia. Formula One is also becoming increasingly popular in Russia.

There had only been two Russian Grands Prix in and , but the Russian Grand Prix returned as part of the Formula One season in , as part of a six-year deal.

Russia has the most Olympic medals stripped for doping violations 51 , the most of any country, four times the number of the runner-up, and more than a third of the global total, and athletes caught doping at the Olympics , also the most of any country.

From to , more than a thousand Russian competitors in various sports, including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports, benefited from a state-sponsored cover-up, [] [] [] [] [] with no indication that the program has ceased since then.

This was the first football World Cup ever held in Eastern Europe , and the first held in Europe since Russia will also host games of the Euro There are seven public holidays in Russia , [] except those always celebrated on Sunday.

Orthodox Christmas falls on January 7, because the Russian Orthodox Church still follows the Julian calendar , and all Orthodox holidays are 13 days after Western ones.

Two other major Christian holidays are Easter and Trinity Sunday. Victory Day is the second most popular holiday in Russia; it commemorates the victory over Nazi Germany and its allies in the Great Patriotic War.

A huge military parade , hosted by the President of Russia , is annually organised in Moscow on Red Square. Similar parades take place in all major Russian cities and cities with the status Hero city or City of Military Glory.

State symbols of Russia include the Byzantine double-headed eagle , combined with St. George of Moscow in the Russian coat of arms. The Russian flag dates from the late Tsardom of Russia period and has been widely used since the time of the Russian Empire.

The Russian anthem shares its music with the Soviet Anthem , though not the lyrics. The imperial motto God is with us and the Soviet motto Proletarians of all countries, unite!

The hammer and sickle and the full Soviet coat of arms are still widely seen in Russian cities as a part of old architectural decorations.

The Soviet Red Stars are also encountered, often on military equipment and war memorials. The Red Banner continues to be honored, especially the Banner of Victory of Cheburashka is a mascot of the Russian national Olympic team.

Alexander Nevsky , St. Sergius of Radonezh and St. Chamomile is the national flower , while birch is the national tree. The Russian bear is an animal symbol and a national personification of Russia, though this image has a Western origin and Russians themselves have accepted it only fairly recently.

The native Russian national personification is Mother Russia. Tourism in Russia has seen rapid growth since the late Soviet period, first domestic tourism and then international tourism, fueled by the rich cultural heritage and great natural variety of the country.

Major tourist routes in Russia include a journey around the Golden Ring of ancient cities, cruises on the big rivers like the Volga , and long journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway.

In , Russia was visited by The most visited destinations in Russia are Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the current and former capitals of the country.

Moscow displays Soviet architecture at its best, along with modern skyscrapers , while St Petersburg, nicknamed Venice of the North , boasts of its classical architecture, many rivers, canals and bridges.

The city has registered a brand The Third Capital of Russia , though a number of other major cities compete for this status, including Novosibirsk , Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod.

The warm subtropical Black Sea coast of Russia is the site for a number of popular sea resorts, like Sochi , the follow-up host of the Winter Olympics.

The mountains of the Northern Caucasus contain popular ski resorts such as Dombay. This unique lake, the oldest and deepest in the world, has crystal-clear waters and is surrounded by taiga -covered mountains.

Other popular natural destinations include Kamchatka with its volcanoes and geysers, Karelia with its lakes and granite rocks, the snowy Altai Mountains , and the wild steppes of Tuva.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Russia disambiguation. Location of Russia green and Crimean peninsula controlled by Russia [note 1].

Grand Duchy of Moscow. Soviet Union and History of the Soviet Union. Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. Foreign relations of Russia. List of Russian explorers.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. List of the largest trading partners of Russia , List of countries by oil exports , and List of countries by natural gas exports.

Agriculture in Russia and Fishing industry in Russia. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records , Science and technology in Russia , List of Russian scientists , and List of Russian inventors.

Water supply and sanitation in Russia. Demographics of Russia and Rossiyane. List of cities and towns in Russia by population. Ethnic groups in Russia.

Russian language , Languages of Russia , and List of endangered languages in Russia. Religion in Russia and Consecration of Russia.

Russian traditions , Russian jokes , Russian fairy tales , Russian cuisine , and Gopnik. Russian architecture and List of Russian architects.

Russian literature , Russian philosophy , Russian poets , Russian playwrights , Russian novelists , and Russian science fiction and fantasy. Public holidays in Russia and Cultural icons of Russia.

Russia portal Europe portal. Retrieved March 27, Archived from the original on January 18, Archived from the original on July 14, Retrieved October 20, Retrieved April 24, Federal State Statistics Service.

Archived from the original on July 28, Retrieved April 5, Retrieved January 23, Retrieved November 2, United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 14 September Retrieved June 25, Retrieved January 31, Russian Embassy, Washington DC.

Sport russland - you have

Auch in diesem Bereich gibt es staatliche Einflussnahme und regimekritische Kulturschaffende werden bedrängt: Es wird die schöne Erinnerung bleiben. Mit der Unterschrift Präsident Putins trat am Das Land ist zudem Gründungsmitglied der seit dem 1. Daneben gibt es jährlich mehrere gesetzliche Feiertage, von denen vor allem das Neujahrsfest durchgehend vom 1.

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